Saturday, February 26, 2011


Inventions and discoveries for GPSC and other compititve exams

  • Saturday, February 26, 2011
  • bhushan chhaya
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  • Pioneers in Science
    Inventions and discoveries in Physics and Chemistry
    Anderson—Discovered positive electrons.
    Archimedes—Discovery of the Principles of lever and of specific gravity; invention  of the famous Archimedean screw.
    Avogadro—An Italian scientist known for Avogadro’s Hypothesis.
    Bacquerel—Radio-activity of uranium.
    Baron Napier—Logarithms.
    Benjamin Franklin—Invented lightning conductor.
    Bessemer—Steel smelting process.
    Bhabha, Dr H.J.—Research in Cosmic rays and Quantum theory.
    Binet—Intelligence Test.
    Birbal Sahni—Researches in Botany.
    Bose, J.C.—Invented Crescograph and published many works on plant physiology. He discovered that plants have sense and perception.
    Bose, S.N.—Discovery of a group of nuclear particles named after him “Boson”.
    Boyle—Boyle’s law; Pressure x volume = constant at a constant given temperature. Boyle was the greatest scientist of England in his time.
    Bohr—Electron Theory—Atomic structure.
    Braun, Dr Wernher von—space flying.
    Bunsen—Invention of the spectroscope.
    Carothers—Nylon plastics.
    Cavendish—Discovery of chemical composition of water; discovery of hydrogen (Inflammable Air); ‘rare gases’.
    Chadwick—Discovery of the neutron.
    Chandrasekhar—Mathematical Astrophysics.
    Charles Darwin—Theory of Evolution; Origin of Species.
    Clarke, Arthur C.—Concept of Geostationary Orbit.
    Curie, Madame—Discovery of radium.
    Dalton—Atomic theory; laws of chemical combination; law of partial pressures; the law of multiple proportions.
    Democritus—Greek philosopher—(Atomic theory).
    Dewar—Invented cordite, liquid oxygen and introduced thermos flask.
    Einstein—Theory of relativity.
    Euclid—Science of geometry.
    Fahrenheit—Fahrenheit mercury thermometric scale in which freezing point is  –32° and boiling point is 212°.
    Faraday—Electromagnetic induction and laws of electrolysis.
    Fermi—Discovered artificial splitting of atoms.
    Freud—Doctrine of Psycho-analysis.
    Gay Lussac—Law of gases.
    Gauss—System of absolute electric measurements.
    Good Year—Discovered the art of vulcanising rubber.
    Herschel, William—Discovered the Planet—Uranus.
    Hertz—Electrical waves.
    Hippalus—Founder of scientific astronomy.
    Hoffmann—Discovered the first aniline dye.
    Kelvin, Lord—Dynamical theory of heat.
    Khorana, Dr Hargobind—Deciphering the genetic code.
    Kodak—Film and photographic goods.
    Lablanc—Manufacture of washing soda.
    Lawrence—Invention of cyclotron.
    Lockyer—Helium gas.
    Louis Braille—Perfected his system of  reading and writing for the blind.
    Marconi—Wireless telegraphy; radio.
    Maria-Montessori—‘Montessori’ method of teaching children.
    Maxwell—Electro-magnetic Theory of Light.
    Meghnad Saha—Effect of pressure on Radiation through bodies.
    Mendel—Laws of heredity.
    Mandeleev—Periodic Table.
    Morse—Morse system of electric telegraphy.
    Newton—Laws of gravitation; Law of Motion.
    Oliver Lodge—Physicist. Researches in wireless communications.
    Oppenheimer—Researches in atomic theory.
    Otto Hahn—Discovery of uranium fission.
    Parsons—Steam turbine.
    Pavlov—Theory of Conditioned Reflex.
    Perkin—‘Mauve dye’.
    Pitman—Founded the Pitman system of phonographic shorthand.
    Planck—Quantum theory.
    Plimsoll—Introduced a line of demarcation on the ships beyond which the ships cannot be loaded.
    Priestley—Discovery of Oxygen.
    Raman, C.V.—“Raman Effect” on polarisation of light and theories on crystals and diamond formation.
    Ramanathan—Molecular scattering of light in fluids.
    Ramanujam—A great Indian mathematician.
    Ramsay—Discovery of Inert gases such as Argon, Neon, Helium etc.
    Ray, P.C.—Researches in chemistry.
    Regnault—Experiments in regard to the physical properties of bodies and their relation to heat.
    Roger Bacon—Gun powder.
    Rontgen—Discovery of X-rays.
    Rohmkorff—Induction coil.
    Rutherford—Atomic Research; succeeded in splitting the atom for the first time in 1918.
    Stephenson—British engineer and pioneer in Railways. He was the first to put a locomotive on the line that was able to draw a train of 31 carriages.
    Thomson, J.J.—Discovered electron.
    Travers—Discovery of Neon gas (Working with Ramsay).
    Urey—Discovery of Heavy Hydrogen.
    Volta—Current electricity and electric battery.

    Pioneers in Mechanical Inventions and Discoveries
    Austin—Motor Car.
    Bell, Graham—Telephone.
    Caxton—Printing Press.
    Daimler—Gas engine.
    Davy—Miner’s Safety Lamp.
    Diesel—Internal Combustion engine (Diesel engine).
    Dunlop—Pneumatic tyre.
    Edison—First electric bulb and gramophone.
    Fick—Law of Diffusion—Fick’s Law.
    Frank Whittle—Jet propulsion.
    Fulton—Stream boat.
    Gillette—Safety razor.
    Guttenburg—Art of Printing.
    Hoe—Rotary Printing Press.
    Howe—Sewing Machine.
    Huygens—Pendulum clock.
    James Watt—Steam engine (patented in 1769).
    Landstrom, J.E.—Safety Matches.
    Macmillan—Bicycle (1842).
    Mauser—Magazine of rifle.
    Mercator—Celestial and a terrestrial globe.
    Montgolfier—Balloon (1883)
    Pascal—Calculating Machine.
    Puckle, James—Machine gun
    Stephenson—Railway engine.
    Swinton—Military tank.
    Watt, Robert Watson—Radar.
    W. & O. Wright (Wright Brothers)Aeroplane (1903).
    Waterman—Fountain pen.
    Zeiss—Lenses; Camera.

    Pioneers in
    Medical Inventions and Discoveries
    Banting—Insulin (as a palliative for diabetes).
    Barnard, Christian—Replacing the human heart.
    Brahmchari, U.M.—Cure of Kala-a-zar fever.
    Davy—Isolation of metals by electricity; studied properties of chlorine.
    Domagk—Sulpha drugs as bactericides.
    Eijkman—Cause of Beri-Beri.
    Finsen—Discovered curative effect of ultra violet rays; photography.
    Fleming, Alexander—Penicillin (in 1929).
    Harvey—Circulation of blood.
    Hahnemann—Homoeopathy (founder).
    Hopkins, Frederick Gowland—Vitamin D.
    Jenner—Smallpox Vaccination.
    Koch—Tubercle Bacillus.
    Lister, Lord—Antiseptic treatment.
    Pasteur, Louis—Treatment of rabies; cure of hydrophobia.
    Ronald Ross—Malaria Parasite.
    Salk, Jonas E.—Anti-polio Vaccine.
    Simpson and Harrison—Chloroform.

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